NEUROANATOMY. Anatomical basis for
clinical neurology. [menu]
NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION.Taking the
patient's history is traditionally the first step in virtually every
clinical encounter. A thorough neurological history allows the
clinician to define the patient's problem and, along with the
physical examination, assists in formulating an etiologic/pathologic
diagnosis in most cases.
A GUIDE TO NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION. Starting
in medical school neurologic examination has remained intimidating
for many physicians. The examination has been perfected over many
decades thanks to our French and German founding fathers. It has led
to eponyms (e.g. - Babinski sign, Hoffmann reflex) different
techniques of detecting subtle signs of weakness (e.g. - hand
rolling, foot tapping) and even a wide collection of reflex hammers
that can be proudly displayed in the office.
Skills of eliciting clinical neurological signs
NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION SLIDES.
Slides fully explaining the basic clinical neurological examination skills
NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION SLIDE SHOW.
Slide show fully explaining most of the clinical neurological examination.
LUMBAR PUNCTURE AND CSF ANALYSIS. Cerebrospinal
fluid (CSF) was first examined in the 19th century using primitive
techniques (eg, sharpened bird quills). CSF analysis reached a peak
in the 1950s and early 1960s, when almost no workup of a significant
central nervous system (CNS) problem was performed without a lumbar
CLINICAL NEUROIMAGING. Neuroimaging
plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS)
disorders. Although magnetic resonance imaging is being used with
increasing frequency in assessment of CNS diseases, computed
tomography continues to offer some advantages.
CLINICAL APPROACH TO STUPOR AND COMA.
Consciousness may be defined as a state of awareness of self and surroundings.
Cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral sinus thrombosis,
intracranial aneurysms etc. [menu]
BRAIN TUMORS. Primary brain tumors
arise from CNS tissue and account for almost one half of all cases of
intracranial neoplasms. The remainder of brain neoplasms are caused
by metastatic cancer originating outside the CNS.
ENCEPHALITIS & CEREBRITIS. Encephalitis,
an inflammation of the brain parenchyma, presents as diffuse and/or
focal neuropsychological dysfunction. From an epidemiological and
pathophysiological perspective, encephalitis is distinct from
meningitis, although, clinically, the 2 often coexist with signs and
symptoms of meningeal inflammation, such as photophobia, headache, or
VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS. Acute viral
encephalitis (enkephalos + -itis, meaning brain inflammation) is
often an unusual manifestation of common viral infections and most
commonly affects children and young adults.
MENINGITIS. Meningitis is an
inflammation of the leptomeninges and underlying subarachnoid
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It can be useful to divide symptom onset
into acute, subacute, and chronic categories.
BRAIN ABSCESS, CLINICO RADIOLOGICAL PICTURE
& MANAGEMENT. Intracranial abscesses are uncommon,
serious, life-threatening infection. They include brain abscess and
subdural or extradural empyema and are classified according to the
anatomic location or etiologic agent. The term brain abscess is used
in this chapter to represent all types of intracranial abscesses.
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. Multiple sclerosis
(MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous
system (CNS). MS lesions, characterized by perivascular infiltration
of monocytes and lymphocytes, appear as indurated areas in
pathological specimens; hence, the term "sclerosis in plaques."
MONOSYMPTOMATIC DEMYELINATING DISORDERS. The
syndrome of optic neuritis (ON) has numerous etiologies (3),
including inflammatory, infectious, toxic, metabolic, and
degenerative diseases. By far the most common is the syndrome seen in
MS, as described earlier.
CNS DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS &
EXTRAPYRAMIDAL DISORDERS. Dementias, parkinson disease,
parkinsonian syndrome, motor neuron disease, Degenerative ataxia,
chorea, dystonia....etc [menu]
PERIPHERAL NERVE DISORDERS & NEUROMUSCULAR
DISORDERS & MUSCLE DISORDERS. Neuropathies, myopathy,
myasthenia gravis etc [menu]
HEADACHE & CRANIAL NEURALGIA. Migraine,
tension headache, cluster headache, trigeminal neuralgia etc [menu]
CRANIAL NERVE DISORDERS. Cranial
nerve palsy, cranial neuralgia [menu]
METABOLIC & ENDOCRINAL
& TOXIC DISORDERS. Encephalopathies, vitamin deficiency,
nutritional disorders etc. [menu]
CNS DEVELOPMENTAL &
GENETIC DISORDERS. Phakomatoses, syringomyelia, spinal
dysraphism etc [menu]
EPILEPTIC DISORDERS. Classification
of epilepsy, generalized epilepsy, focal epilepsy, epilepsy
management etc [menu]
COLLAGEN / VASCULAR
DISORDERS. CNS lupus, CNS affection in rheumatoid arthritis,
Behcet disease. neurovasculitis etc. [menu]
SPINAL DISORDERS. Spinal disc disease,
congenital spinal lesions, spinal infective disease, spinal tumours
MISCELLANEOUS DISORDERS. Other
neurological disorders and medically related neurological disorders [menu]
CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY. Psychosis,
neurosis, sleep disorders, etc [menu]
quick guide to management [menu]
The meaning of common terms used in neurology.
200 multiple choice questions with the correct anwers.